There are many ancient cities in Turkey. Hundreds of civilizations have lived in Anatolia throughout history. People have lived in Turkey since the first ages and the first human communities were found in Anatolia. Research on the First Age civilizations is still being done in Anatolia and new discoveries are emerging. The best example of this is the historical city of Çatalhöyük, located in Konya, Turkey.

Many people come to Turkey to visit the ancient cities in Turkey. Ancient city enthusiasts from European countries, USA, Far East countries and many other places travel to Turkey. Travel and vacation in Turkey is quite nice and cheap. You can read the article titled “Which Are the Best Holiday Villages in Turkey” on this subject.

Many communities lived in Anatolia. These are Hittites, Hattians, Phrygians, Ionians, Urartians and Lydians. These communities are known to have built numerous cities and monuments. It is known that Anatolia was dominated by the Roman Empire for a period. There was also the Byzantine Empire, known as the Eastern Roman Empire.
According to the data of the Turkish Ministry of Culture, there are 77 ancient cities in Turkey. Although many of them are not well known by people, these ancient cities have historical significance. Some ancient cities are known to the whole world. It is even seen that some ancient cities in Turkey are on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

The most well-known ancient city in Turkey is the Ancient City of Ephesus, located in the province of Izmir. There are many ancient cities in the province of Izmir, located in the west of Turkey. General information about İzmir and other must-see places in İzmir. You can find it in the article titled “What to See“.
Ephesus is thought to be the capital city of the Ionians. Ephesus was built in 6000 BC. The world-famous Temple of Artemis is located here. The Temple of Artemis is considered one of the seven wonders of the world.


The ancient city of Pergamon is located in the town of Bergama in Izmir. This ancient city was included in the UNESCO Temporary World Heritage List in 2011, and then in the World Heritage List in 2014. Pergamon Ancient City was the capital city of the Pergamon Kingdom. Between 282 and 133 BC, this ancient city was the capital of the Pergamon Kingdom. This magnificent city was conquered by Macedonian King Alexander the Great in 334 BC.


Ancient City of Miletus is located in Aydın province of Turkey. It is located within the borders of Didim district in Aydın province. Didim is also a holiday region. Tourists who come here have the opportunity to both enjoy a sea holiday and see the Ancient City of Miletus and other historical monuments. The foundation of the Miletus Ancient City dates back to 2000 BC. It is said that the foundation of Miletus was laid before the Ionians. But the development of the city was during the Ionian period.
The ancient city of Miletus is considered one of the 12 cities of the Ionians. It is estimated that it had 4 ports and was used as an important trade center. This ancient city, which has hosted many civilizations, was dominated by the Hittites for a while. The ancient city of Miletus was later captured by the Persian Empire. Macedonian King Alexander the Great took this city from the Persians in 304 BC and added it to his lands. Miletus, which gained its independence for a while, then came under the rule of the Roman Empire.

The ancient city of Aspendos is located in the province of Antalya, which is located in the coastal region of Turkey. Located in the district called Serik, this wonderful ancient city is visited by many tourists every year. It is seen that especially the tourists who come to Antalya for a sea holiday in June, July and August show great interest in this ancient city. The most striking work of the Aspendos Ancient City is the ancient theatre. It can be said that Aspendos Antique Theater is one of the most solid and impressive theaters that have survived to the present day. Aspendos Antique Theater is used for some concerts and organizations today.


The Ancient City of Assos, located in the province of Çanakkale in Turkey, welcomes thousands of tourists every year. Assos has hosted many civilizations in history. It is doubtful when and by whom the ancient city of Assos was built. However, it is thought that there has been life in this ancient city since the Bronze Age. Assos was dominated by the Lydians for a while. It is known that later it came under the rule of the Persian Empire. Assos was also owned by the Kingdom of Pergamon and the Roman Empire. Assos has holiness for Christians. Because it is believed that Assos was visited and blessed by Paul. Assos has been a place where life continued until the middle ages. but in the Middle Ages people left this city.

The ancient city of Troy is a world-famous historical monument. This ancient city was included in the World Heritage List by UNESCO in 1998. It is thought that the Trojan War, described in the epic of the famous Ionian poet Homer, called the Iliad, took place in the ancient city of Troy. The most important work of the ancient city of Troy is the Temple of Athena. Athena is known as the goddess of peace in Greek mythology. It is said that the Temple of Athena was visited by the Persian Emperor Xerxes and the Macedonian King Alexander the Great. It is known that the Persian Emperor and Alexander the Great gave great importance to this temple.

The ancient city of Anavarza is located in the city of Adana, located on the Mediterranean coast in the southern region of Turkey. This ancient city is known as the ‘Invincible City’ in history. His name was heard more during the Roman Empire period. Information on previous eras is very limited. It is stated that Avanarza has an area even larger than the ancient city of Ephesus. It has hosted many civilizations. The ancient city of Anavarza is on the World Heritage Tentative List.

Mount Nemrut is within the borders of Adıyaman province, located in the Southeast region of Turkey. Nemrut Mountain, which has wonderful natural beauties, is visited by thousands of tourists. Mount Nemrut was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in 1987. In addition, the Turkish State has declared this region a national park and has taken it under protection. This ancient city was built by the Commagene King Theos in 62 BC. The statues of many Greek and Persian gods were made on Mount Nemrut. In addition, King Theos had his own tomb built on this mountain.

Aphrodisias is the common name given to several ancient cities. These ancient cities are located in Turkey’s Aydın province. The ancient cities of Aphrodisias are cities dedicated to the goddess Aphrodite. These ancient cities gained importance especially during the Roman Empire. Between the 5th century BC and the 1st century BC, the ancient cities of Aphrodisias developed and grew rapidly. Sculpture in particular reached its peak in these cities. The Ancient Cities of Aphrodisias were included in the World Heritage Tentative List by UNESCO in 2009, and then saved on the World Heritage List in 2017.

Ancient city of Laodicea is a historical city located in Denizli province of Turkey. Denizli is the city where the world famous Pamukkale is located. Many tourists come to Denizli to see both Pamukkale travertines and Laodicea Ancient City. You can read the article titled ”Where is Pamukkale in Turkey” on this subject. Laodicea Ancient City came under the rule of Rome in 130 BC. One of the most striking structures of Laodicea is the ancient theater with a capacity of 20,000 people. The people of Laodicea gave great importance to Christianity.
In addition, the ancient city of Hierapolis, located in the Pamukkale Travertines, is an ancient city that attracts the attention of tourists. The Ancient City of Hierapolis was registered in the World Heritage list by UNESCO in 1988. The Ancient City of Hierapolis was founded by the Permagon Kingdom in the 2nd century BC. In 395, the Byzantine Empire dominated this city. The importance of the city increased during the Byzantine period and the city was considered one of the central cities of Byzantium. It is located in this ancient city with unique artifacts. There are many ancient theatres, ancient pools, necropolis and temples in the Ancient City of Hierapolis.

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